Saturday, September 22, 2007

The famous Pyramid Texts

The famous Pyramid Texts herein translated for the first time in English with commentary were found inscribed on the walls of five pyramids at Saḳḳâreh, the ancient necropolis of Memphis in Egypt. These pyramids are those of the kings Unis of the Fifth Dynasty, and Teti, Pepi I, Merenrē‘ and Pepi II of the Sixth Dynasty. To this translation has been added that of recently discovered additional texts, parallel and complementary, in the pyramids of Oudjebten, Neit, and Apouit, queens of Pepi II, and of Ibi, a king of the Seventh Dynasty, of whom little historically is known. Thus, according to the present generally accepted chronology, these pyramids were constructed, and apparently inscribed, between the years about 2350 to 2175 B.C. It is, however, certain that many of these texts came into existence before the final union of Upper and Lower Egypt, and perhaps long before that date, which is now put at about 3000 B.C. Indeed, some of them possibly existed in oral form before the art of writing was developed. These inscriptions together with others were after that probably written on papyrus and potsherds, many of which in time perished, the rest remaining in various forms until they were collected and incised on the walls of the Saḳḳâreh h pyramids. Evidence of a date previous to about 3000 B.C. is seen in passages which reflect events and conditions previous to the union of the two Lands, for example, the hostility between North and South, before the time of the first king, Menes; in the mode of burying bodies of the dead in the sand; in the pre-civilized era reflected in the so-called Cannibal Hymn; and in the many references to the assembling of the bones of the deceased, passages which indicate a pre-mummification period. And in the historic period various chronological points can be established with fair certainty, such as the time of the Second Dynasty, when both Horus and Set were in favour in royal circles; references to previously written material such as the "Chapter of those who ascend" and the "Chapter of those who raise themselves up," 1245d-e, indicating a time in the historic period in which writing became common; and the formulae for the protection of pyramids, such as, Uts. 600-601, which represent a date after the time of the
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construction of pyramids. So that the myths and legends, the history and philosophy, the hopes and fears of people (subjects as well as monarchs) of many hundreds of years were finally inscribed in enduring stone, which over four thousand years removed from our time, may now be read with comparative ease and certainty, thanks to the modern discipline of archaeological research and philology. The extent of this written material may be appreciated in saying that it takes well over a thousand pages of two quarto volumes to contain it. In the standard modern edition of the original text, together with parallels and additions from the pyramids of Pepi II, Neit, and others, there are about 7000 lines, most of which are parallels, of more or less completeness of the estimated 2500 lines, which occur in one or other of the pyramids; for most of the utterances occur in more than one pyramid, but very few are repeated in all these pyramids. Thus, the pyramid of Unis has only two hundred and eight utterances out of a total of over seven hundred and thirty; and they with those of the pyramid of Teti are among the oldest in the collection.
A general idea of the contents of this mass of literary material may be seen in the detailed list of Contents preceding this Introduction; but that does not mean that these texts present a coherent whole, for they do not; and while there are clearly three outstanding elements in them, namely, Solar Theology, Religion and Myths of Osiris, and the Political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, yet the following seven points may be taken to represent the whole collection with fair general accuracy: 1) A funerary ritual of mortuary offerings, connected with the corporeal reconstitution and resurrection of the deceased king, 2) Magical formulae to ward against harm and evil, 3) A ritual of worship, 4) Religious hymns, 5) Mythical formulae, identifying the deceased king with certain deities, 6) Prayers and petitions on behalf of the deceased king, and 7) The greatness and power of the deceased king in heaven.
These pyramid texts were royal texts, and during the Old Kingdom there is no evidence that the people ever took them to themselves and used them in their own tombs. However, at the end of the Sixth Dynasty, Neit, one of the queens of Pepi II, had them applied to herself, though the second person and third person masculine singular were often used and applied to her; but during the Middle Kingdom the use of them spread to the nobles, and in the New Kingdom parts of them were incorporated in the popular Theban Book of the Dead.
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[paragraph continues] And doubtless because of their sanctity little attempt was made to put them in accord with changed circumstances.
When these small pyramids were built and inscribed the age of the great pyramids, like those at Giza, had passed, and with it the sense of royal security after this life. The great pyramids had been entered in spite of their thousands of tons of masonry, and kings came to look elsewhere for the assurance of a happy and glorious hereafter. They turned to religion and magic. By mortuary offerings and funerary rites the deceased king was armed for his future life; and by magic he was endowed with physical and spiritual power, becoming a great god and associating with the gods, to avoid whatever in the world to come might otherwise compromise his destiny. The purpose of these royal texts then was to guarantee the deceased king's resurrection and new-birth, his transfiguration and divinity, his successful journey to heaven, and his immortality there with the other gods. There in heaven as a great god, sometimes as the greatest of all the, gods, the deceased king was believed to be able to overcome all difficulties by his own might, or by identifying himself with other gods.
In the earliest of these texts two very ancient doctrines may be discerned: that of the old heaven-god, perhaps Horus the elder, in which the deceased king as a star was prominent, and that of the sun-god where the deceased as the sun-god was contemplated. But the two were harmonized doubtless at a very early period, when the celestial abode of the heaven- and star-gods became identified with that of the solar deities. But what we do see more clearly in the Pyramid Texts are the two opposing systems of theological thought, that of Rē‘ of Heliopolis and that of Osiris. The Pyramid Texts were largely solar, but long before the texts were inscribed in the pyramids of Saḳḳâreh, there existed Osirian texts as well as Solar ones, though there is reason to believe that the learned men and scribes of Heliopolis were the first to make collections of their texts. And gradually as such collections were being made, there was a tendency to include Osirian texts, as well as, an effort on the part of Osirians to facilitate the entrance of their texts into the great Solar collections (cf. Excursus XXVII), with the result that there was a redaction continually going on, in which not only was the name of Osiris introduced into the collections, especially as an epithet of the king, such as Osiris Teti, but also the name of the solar king was introduced into original Osirian texts. However, the great bulk of the texts remained solar and celestial with comparatively little trace of the underworld
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character of the Osirian faith. There are also traces in these texts of other systems of theological thought than the Heliopolitan and Osirian, namely, those of Memphis and Hermopolis.
As one reads these ancient texts, there is a primitiveness about them which is not unexpected, though they are never naive. There is much repetition, not much order, contradictions, errors, and sometimes what appear to be ridiculous statements, but in spite of all that, real poetic passages and consistent reasoning are not lacking. There is the art to create images, figures of speech, and metaphores in beautiful and choice language. There are paronomasiae, parallelisms, litanies, and hymns. There are poetic expressions, such as 567a-c; real lyrics, like Ut. 362; symbolical expressions, such as 681d; and really fine bits, like 307a-c. There are proverbs, such as 396d; and adages, such as 444e. The most symmetrically and mechanically arranged utterance in the whole collection is Ut. 575, which reminds one of Ps. 119. But the overall characteristic of these texts is their religious and funerary, their magical, mythological, and astronomic expressions, interpretations, and predispositions.
Auguste Mariette had the distinction, in the later part of his life, of being the modern discoverer of the inscribed pyramids at Saḳḳâreh,, but it was Maspero in 1880 working under Mariette's direction, who discovered the first set of Pyramid Texts. They were those inscribed on the walls of the sarcophagus chamber of the pyramid of Pepi I. Following that, he found texts in the pyramids of Unis of the Fifth Dynasty, as well as in the pyramids of Teti, Merenrē‘, and Pepi II, in addition to Pepi I, all of the Sixth Dynasty. This work of discovery of pyramid texts did not find a continuation until the years 1920 and 1936, when the Swiss Egyptologist, Jéquier, discovered texts in the pyramids of Oudjebten, Neit, and Apouit, queens of Pepi II, and in that of Ibi, an obscure king of the Seventh Dynasty, besides clearing that of Pepi II, whom Sethe records as N. (Neferkarē‘).
These texts usually occupy the walls of the sarcophagus chamber except the west side, and are so disposed that the deceased king in his sarcophagus might spiritually see and read them. Texts are also on the walls of the antechamber, on the horizontal passages, and some are on the walls of the vestibule and even on those of the ramp. They are normally in vertical columns, incised on the limestone walls, some excellently done as in the pyramids of Unis and Pepi II, others very crudely done as in that of Ibi.
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As Maspero was the discoverer of the Pyramid Texts, so be was the first to make an edition and translation of them. These were all the pyramid texts which were known at the time of their publication in 1894. And in view of what we now know about the difficulties of the Pyramid Texts, this edition and translation were evidence of the genius of the great master. Even today many of his translations accord with the best that is known on those passages, which is an indication of his great learning and insight.
For years before the beginning of this century Kurt Sethe, whose name will be forever associated with the Pyramid Texts, was deeply interested in everything which concerned them. He as well as other trained Egyptologists realized that the earlier copy of the texts was often incorrect, and that a new and scientifically copied edition was a necessity. Accordingly, taking advantage of the work of Dr. Heintze and Ludwig Borchardt, who were in Egypt taking impressions and photographs of the Pyramid Texts for slips in preparation for the making of the great Berlin Wörterbuch der Aegyptischen Sprache, Sethe made use of their material in preparing a new edition of the Pyramid Texts. And no Egyptologist was more thoroughly prepared for such an undertaking than Kurt Sethe. And so he began the critical and exacting task of constructing a text principally on the basis of the five versions Unis, Teti, Pepi I, Merenrē‘, and Pepi II, which was finished and published in 1908-1910 in two great quarto volumes of over a thousand pages of hieroglyphic text, which is now the standard text. To accompany the text, he followed them with a third volume of critical apparatus in 1922 and a fourth of epigraphy in the same year. Thus the great work of giving to the world the text of the oldest collection of mythical, religious, and literary material in existence was finished. However, the text was marred by one blemish, but not due to the science of Sethe. It was due to the fact that a considerable Portion of the texts in the five pyramids was broken, damaged and destroyed--a condition which may never be completely remedied. It is along this line that Egyptologists who were specialists in these texts have been working since the time of Sethe. Already considerable progress has been made in the discovery of texts, anciently copied from the texts in these five pyramids, before they were damaged, and recorded elsewhere; in a further study of the walls of the five pyramids themselves; and in the discovery and publishing of new pyramids and tombs with parallel and additional texts, all which will be used in the future, but not till after many years of archaeological research
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in Egypt, in the construction of a more complete text. Already between 1920 and 1936 Jéquier discovered at Saḳḳâreh similar texts in the pyramids of Oudjebten, Neit, and Apouit of the Sixth Dynasty and of Ibi of the Seventh Dynasty; in 1932 the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art discovered in the cemetery surrounding the pyramid of Se’n-Wosret I at Lisht the tomb of an official of the Twelfth Dynasty named Se’n-Wosret-‘Ankh, containing a long series of inscriptions drawn from the Pyramid Texts, and published in 1937; and in 1935 William C. Hayes published the "Royal Sarcophagi of the Eighteenth Dynasty," containing parts of the Pyramid Texts, which are useful in filling some lacunae in the Saḳḳâreh texts. Then older publications are useful, such as that of de Morgan in 1894-1895 of similar texts in a private tomb at Dahshûr; that of Firth and Gunn in 1926 of texts in the Teti Pyramid Cemeteries at Saḳḳâreh; and that of Borchardt in 1913 of similar texts in the mortuary temple of Sahurē‘ at Abuṣîr. Then there are the Coffin Texts of the Middle Kingdom and the Theban Book of the Dead of the New Kingdom, which contain Pyramid Texts in modified and further modified form; as well as tombs of kings, such as that of Seti I, and of private individuals, which contain Pyramid Texts sometimes in quite exact quotation. All these and others may be drawn upon in the future construction of a still more perfect version of the famous ancient Pyramid Texts of Saḳḳâreh. Quite recently T. G. Allen of the University of Chicago has published a most useful guide to all parallel and illustrative Egyptian texts at present known in his valuable book, Occurrences of Pyramid Texts with cross Indexes of these and other Egyptian Mortuary Texts, Chicago, 1950.
After the publication of his text, Sethe's next concern was to prepare a translation with a commentary. The central thought in his busy years of research as soon as the text was published was directed towards that purpose, and by 1929 he was ready to begin. He was master of an immense accumulation of philological, historical, and religious facts in the field of ancient Egyptian literature, and with him were associated co-workers and colleagues, such as Lange, Grapow, and Sander-Hansen. He began with Ut. 2 13 and by the time of his death in 1934 had finished up to and including Ut. 506, or less than one half of the text as he had published it. It remained for a commission of his associates to carry on the work. This they began to do immediately after the great master's death.
Sethe's translation and commentary on Uts. 213-506 was not ready
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for the printer. It needed revising, especially in the later portions, and writing. The Commission received the material left by Sethe and published it much as it was. Before the beginning of the war in 1939 four volumes of translation and commentary were published, which included Uts. 213-506, or between one-third and one-half of the whole. A fifth volume is said to be in preparation.
Not counting the early and tentative translation by Maspero in 1894, Sethe's is the only translation--itself only between one-third and one-half of the whole--in any language of the Pyramid Texts, except one made in French by L. Speleers, a Belgian Egyptologist in 1923-1924, remade in 1934, but without a commentary. No translation in any other language has so far been published. Individual scholars have translated portions here and there for their use in works on various aspects of ancient Egyptian religion and thought, philology and literature, customs and history, such as Kees, Junker, Drioton, Weill, Breasted, Gardiner, Gunn, Sander-Hansen, etc.
The present translation is thus, the only complete one with full commentary in any language. It is not as full as that part of Sethe's which is finished, but it has been planned to be more concise in its comments, leaving longer comments on important points for a series of Excursuses, so as not to interfere with the proportioned flow of comment on the current text. But it has been able to make use of large portions of the pyramids of Pepi II and Neit as well as of publications of other pyramids, tombs, and sarcophagi brought to light since Sethe's day. It has thus added over four hundred lines to the text, besides, filling some smaller lacunae here and there.
It is not claimed to be a definitive translation, because we have not yet a definitive text. Such a text and translation may never be able to be made, because of quite natural causes. But with the further discovery of new texts and a complete comparison with all extant later parallels in texts already published as well as yet unpublished a future text and translation will be called for. For that reason, in this present translation use has been made of material later than the time of the Pyramid Texts themselves only when it was thought to have some light to throw upon a problem difficult of solution, or when it gave a new meaning to a passage. In other words, this is an interim translation and commentary of the Pyramid Texts for the use not only of Egyptologists but likewise of students of religions and comparative religions, of literature and comparative literature, of the history of ideas and customs, and of culture and civilization in general.
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[paragraph continues] There is published with it a complete apparatus for general use such as an analysis of each utterance with a discussion of its date, a series of Excursuses on important subjects, a full glossary of useful terms, phrases, and subjects, and a full index to the translation.
In translating and interpreting these texts many things have had to be taken into consideration and many allowances have had to be made. It must he remembered that many of these old utterances or discourses are veritable magic formulae to procure for the deceased king all kinds of material satisfaction, to protect him against any enemies he may meet on his way to the other world, and to procure for him an eternal life; and that very often place names refer to celestial locations and not to ancient places in Egypt. In keeping with their general magical character, most if not all of these utterances begin with the expression dd mdw, which is a rubrical direction "to say," that is, the words are to be spoken or recited by someone, often a lector-priest, sometimes the deceased king himself, and sometimes by him in the first person. The rubric sometimes directs that the petition be repeated four times. There is evidence that some of the utterances were written in the first person singular, and were later changed to the third person singular. Ut. 506 is a good example of a text which was surely in the first person singular originally, but in general in translations the third person has been used unless the form of the first person has been reproduced in the hieroglyphic text. It has been useful to notice when the first person is used, for it is one of the signs of an early date for the text in which it is found, for example, Uts. 325 and 563 are late, and one of the indications is that the third person singular is always used. On the whole, the determination of the date of a text is rather uncertain, and sometimes impossible. There can be no systematic ordering of the dates as J. E. D. P. of Old Testament criticism. Nor is n, the sign of the genitive, a sure guide of date, its presence indicating a late and its absence an early date, as the occurrence and the absence of the n in the same sentence or compound sentence proves, Cf. 2056c.
Among the texts of the Saḳḳâreh pyramids there is evidence of redaction of some of them, thus, Ut. 55 is a re-writing for kings of the historic period of an older text, composed for the predynastic kings of Buto; and some long utterances are made up of independent short parts, with some changes added by the redactor, e.g. Ut. 468. Indeed the Pyramid Texts are to a large extent a composition, compiling, and joining of earlier texts. Moreover, there are corruptions
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in the texts, mistakes in writing, errors in grammar and syntax, contradictions and confusions, expressions which seem ridiculous, and illogical expressions, most of which have been referred to in the Commentary on the text where they occur. There are numerous paronomasiae and words of double meaning; and superstition led to the mutilation of hieroglyphic signs of creatures which were thought, if left whole, may be capable of injuring the deceased king, and the fish for the same reason was used only once (218c, N.) in the inscriptions in his burial chamber.
As there is a minimum of classification and order in the sequence of the texts, a list of Contents of the Pyramid Texts precedes this Introduction. Therein an attempt has been made to find groups of texts without disturbing the sequence of the text in Sethe's edition. Consequently it often happens that we are obliged to group some texts under the heading "Texts of Miscellaneous Contents." However, there are many instances where texts grouped in Sethe's edition form a natural and often perfect group, e.g. the Serpent Charms of Uts. 226-244, or the Ferryman Texts, Uts. 300-337.
In translations an honest effort has been made to express the sense of the original in English, with the result that many translations are literal instead of free, thus in 1004d the original is translated "at the voice of lamentation" instead of "at the sound of lamentation," so that the English will be apt to be stilted instead of elegant. As in all ancient languages, particles, such as adverbs, and conjunctions are rare, with the result that it is often not easy to make the correct sequence or dependence, rendering the sense of the sentence or passage uncertain. Again the same word in different contexts may require varied renderings, such as the word ȝgb which means "flood," "abundance," or "violence," in accordance with the context. To save as much space as possible, very few alternative translations have been introduced, where in many cases the same phrase or sentence could be rendered in different ways. In most lines of the Pyramid Texts the line as it appears in two or more pyramids is given; in other words, in Sethe's edition every line is given in as many pyramids as it occurs; so as a rule the earliest text is the one followed in translating the line unless one of the other pyramids has decidedly the best text. Where important differences occur, they are pointed out in the commentary; but where differences are not helpful in interpretation they are not always noted. Nor are variants in other texts not in the Sethe edition referred to unless they are useful in a better understanding of the meaning
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of the text. Whenever "to say" occurs if in only one of the parallel pyramids, it is used in the translation. In the Commentary on Uts. 213-506, Sethe's discussions were ever before me, and I felt myself constrained by his logic and learning to follow him, but wherever I felt that another solution to a problem of interpretation was better though different from his I have not hesitated to use it. In other words, in those utterances, Sethe became my standard unless I could improve on it, as I often did, I believe, in the light of additional Nt. or N. texts, or still later texts, or comparative literature or religion. In all my comments, I have felt free to draw upon any sources, especially ancient ones, whenever I felt the need of an illustrative idea or custom. But I have been unable to take advantage of some of the new points made by my colleagues in their Excursuses, due to a difference of date in the completion of the earlier parts of this work and the arrival of their manuscript. At the same time, obvious remarks have been avoided as much as possible, and only important differences and similarities between lines, paragraphs, and utterances have been noted. Minor errors, whether in the original hieroglyphics, or in Sethe's text, are not always noted, neither are the presence or absence of an ’i prosthetic, or a genitival n always mentioned, nor has the analysis of the utterances been too meticulous in unessential matters, for as the German proverb has it:
"Wer auf jede Feder acht,Nie das Bette fertig macht."
The abbreviations of the pyramids in which texts so far have been found are: W. = Unis, T. = Teti, P. = Pepi I, M. = Merenrē‘, N. = Pepi II (Neferkarē‘), Nt. = Neit, Ip. = Apouit, Wd. = Oudjebten, Ib. = Aba, Se’n = Se’n-Wosret-‘Ankh. In the translations of the texts of these pyramids, instead of using the different abbreviations for the different sovereigns, the letter N. (nomen) is used throughout. Other abbreviations may be seen in the "List of Abbreviations" of literature. The square brackets [ ] are used to designate a conjecture made by Sethe, or by me, which has not with satisfaction been textually verified; the round brackets ( ) are used for explanatory words or phrases or for alternative translations. Capitalization is used as sparingly as possible in the translation and commentary, but when common nouns referring to things are personified, or deified, or both, they are written with a capital letter; but punctuation marks are used somewhat excessively, especially
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where they aid the meaning. I have always made a slight departure from the orthodox method of transliterating hieroglyphics, in the interest of simplicity, in that I have used the accepted ’i when it is initial, but i otherwise; and I use the grammatical word "gentilic" instead of the word "nisbé." In case of the two words usually translated, the first "soul" and the other "double," I use the transliterated forms bȝ and kȝ, or ba and ka, to avoid misunderstanding in the supposed English equivalents. In the case of the plural of ka, I use the form ka's or kas, which others also use. Any differences in the transliteration of words, in abbreviations, and in modes of reference, etc., in the Excursuses of authors other than myself are ordinarily retained. In broken passages, the approximate length of the broken line is indicated by ------------
The Excursuses are meant to treat subjects ordinarily too large for the Commentary, but the discussion is confined to the Pyramid Texts, except for parallel and illustrative matter. The Glossary is meant to give a brief description or definition of important words, names, phrases, and subjects which occur in the Translation and Commentary, with as a rule only one reference, usually the most important one. Other references may be found in the Commentary, in the Index, or in Speleers' excellent Vocabulary. The List of Abbreviations applies to the chief works actually used in this book; and the Index which follows is that to the Translation alone, but which naturally serves the Commentary as well. On account of the lack of hieroglyphic type only a few hieroglyphs, considered essential in the comments, have been used, and are collected together on three plates at the end of the work, but referred to in the Commentary by plate and number. With a few exceptions of names of a general character, only those found in the Translation and Commentary are entered in the map, which appears at the end of the last volume.
As noted above, the only scientific edition of the hieroglyphic texts of the inscribed pyramids was made by Sethe in 1908-1910. The texts form a collection of 714 utterances or chapters, and although most of the utterances occur in more than one pyramid and very few are repeated in all the pyramids in which the texts are found, many of them are damaged and incomplete wherever they are found in the texts published by Sethe. However, since the time of Sethe's publication similar texts have been found in other pyramids at Saḳḳâreh of the Sixth and Seventh Dynasties as well as in private tombs of the Middle Kingdom, and which have been published, and are specified
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above. A study of these additional texts has made it possible for me to add in translation 386 lines to the approximately 6500 lines in Sethe's hieroglyphic edition, and to make 57 larger restorations, besides many smaller ones, amounting to about 40 additional lines, making in all an addition of about 426 lines, in translation, to Sethe's original edition. The confirmation from texts not available to Sethe of his restorations are not recorded in these lists, but they are given in the Commentary (e.g. that in 130, while emendations and restorations as well as all substantial additions are mentioned in the comments on the lines where they occur. Therefore, for convenience of reference to the published hieroglyphic texts, there follow here two lists, the first a list of the added lines, and the second a list of the larger restorations. The additions as well as the restorations, larger and smaller, are also recorded, at their appropriate places in the Commentary:


2207. thy father --------------------------------
2208a. ---------------------- [in his name] of Rē‘.
2208b. N. was nursed on the milk (of) ------------------
2208c. ---------------------------- your arm.
2209a. --------------------------- his mother;
2209b. his mother is Šś3.t-Śti.t (Satis); guide --------------
2209c. ----------------------------------------
2210a. ------------ one ---------------------
2210b. ------------- N ----------------------
2210c. ------------ with the ‘bȝ-sceptre -----------------
2211a. ------------ the Name of N ---------------------
2211b. ---------- his beloved son, coming forth from ---
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2211c. ---------------- N. being --------------------
2211d. ---------------- to exist ---------------------
2212a. ------------- these gods ---------------------
2212b. ----- says the priest of Rē‘ to [N.]
2212c. ------------- of the gods, he satisfies the spirits.
2212d. ------------- N. the sky with -------------------
2212e ---------- his pellet of incense is broken -------
2213a. Horus has put his arm around [N.] ---------------
2213b. ------- before N. N ----------------------
2213c. ----- N. with natron --------------------------
2213d. Thou art Thot who avenges it; thou art not [ like Set who took it].
2213e. ------------------------------------------
2214a. ------------------------------------------
2214b. Thou has seen the Delta --------------------
2214c. N. voyages there to the shore (of) ----------------
2214d. ----------- N. separates ---------------------
2214e. ------------------------------------------
2215a. ------------ behind N ----------------------
2215b. -------------------------------------------
2216a. ------------ to attack --------------------
2216b. --------------- N ----------------------
2216c. -------------- N ----------------------
2217a -------------------------------------------
2217b ---------------N ---------------------


Utterance 691.
2120a (Nt. XXXII 819). To say: O my father, O Rē‘, concerning these things which thou hast said:
2120b (Nt. 819). "O that I had a son who is glorified, who dawns, who is a soul, is honoured, is mighty,
2120c (Nt. 820). whose arm is stretched out, whose stride is wide."
2121a (Nt. 820). Behold me, I am thy son, behold I am N.;
2121b (Nt. 820-821). I am glorified, I dawn (or, am crowned), I am a soul, I am honoured, I am mighty;
2121c (Nt. 821). mine arm is stretched out, my stride is wide.
2122a. O N., he is purified;
2122b (Nt. 821-822). I take the rudder, I am glad of my seat on the shoulder of the sky;
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2122c. N. voyages on the shoulder of the sky;
2122d. N. directs his rudder on the shoulder of the sky.
2123a. O my father, O Rē‘, concerning these things which thou hast said:
2123b. "O that I had a son who is glorified, who dawns, who is a soul, is honoured, is mighty,
2123c. whose arm is stretched out, whose stride is wide."
2124a. Behold me, I am thy son, behold I am N.
2124b. I am glorified, I dawn (or, am crowned), I am a soul, I am honoured, I am mighty;
2125a. I am purified;
2125b (Nt. 825). I take my rudder, I am glad of my seat in company with the Ennead;
2125c (Nt. 826). I voyage with the Ennead;
2125d (Nt. 826). I direct my rudder in company with the Ennead.
Utterance 691 A.
2126a-1 (Nt. Jéquier, XXXII 826). To say: The two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Rē‘;
2126a-2 (Nt. 826-827). the two reed-floats of heaven are placed for Rē‘,
212 6a-3 (Nt. 827). that he may be high from east to west at the side of his brothers, the gods.
212 6a-4 (Nt. 827-828). His, brother is Śȝḥ, his sister is Sothis;
2126a-5 (Nt. 828). he is seated between them above (lit. in) this earth for ever.
212 6a-6 (Nt. 828). The two reed-floats of heaven are placed for this N.;
2126a (Nt. 828-829). the two reed-floats of heaven are placed for this N.;
212 6b (Nt. 829). that she (lit. he) may be high from east to west at the side of her (lit. his) brothers, the gods.
2126b + 1 (Nt. 829). Her (lit. his) brother is Śȝḥ her (lit. his) sister is Sothis;
212 6b + 2 (Nt. 830). she (lit. he) is seated between them above (lit. in) this earth for ever.
Utterance 691 B.
2127a-1 (Nt. Jéquier, XXXII 830). Awake, awake, father Osiris,
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2127a-2 (Nt. 83 0). I am thy son, who loves thee, I am thy son, who loves thee.
2127a (Nt. 831). Behold me, enter, I am come, I have brought to thee that which he carried off belonging to thee.
2127b (Nt. SP). He rejoiced over thee; he exulted (?) over thee.
2127b + 1 (Nt. 832). Set exulted over thee, at the side of thy two mourning sisters,
2127b + 2 (Nt. 83 2 ). the two sisters who love thee, Isis and Nephthys; they are pleasing to thee.
2127b + 3 (Nt. 883). Thou shalt not pass me by, for I am entrusting myself to thee;
2127b + 4 (Nt. 833). thou shalt not pass by the bread of judgment; thou shalt be satisfied with Ḥr-’imi-pr.f.
2128a-1 (Nt. 833-834). I have rowed (thee) as Set, like Geb;
212 8a, (Nt. 834). like the remains (of a corpse) (in) jars of viscera;
2128b (Nt. 834). thy forepart being like that of a jackal, thy hinderpart like Ḳbḥ.wt.
2128b + 1 (Nt. 834). It is clear that thou receivest a man of god.
212 8b + 2 (Nt. 83 5). 1 have ploughed barley; I have reaped the spelt,
2128b + 3 (Nt. 835). which I have done (given) for thy years (festivals?).
212 8b + 4 (Nt. 83 5). Awake, awake, father, for this thy bread.
Utterance 691 C.
2129-1 (N. Jéquier, XI 1011) -------- N. he
2129-2 (N. 1011) -------------- ‘ȝm --- ḥ ---
2129 (N. 1011-1012) ------ the might of N. -----------------
2129 + 1 (N. 1012) ----------- they see (?) -------
2129 + 2 (N. 1012) -----------------------------------
2129 + 3 (N. 1012). the throne of N. m -----
2129 + 4 (N. 1012). --- this N. on the head of Rē‘ dm -----
2129 + 5 (N. 1012) ------- m (?) ---------
2130 (N. 1012-1013) ------- in heaven strong ---------------
2130+ 1 (N. 1013) --------------- m(?)ś
2130 + 2 (N. 1013). N ---------------------------------
2130 + 3 (N. 1013). he smote (?) with the ‘bȝ-sceptre; he led with the ’iȝȝ.t-sceptre
2130+4 (N. 1013). this N -------- with (?) a voice
p. 312
2130+ 5 (N. 1013). not --------
2131 (N. 1013-1014). ----------- his? names
2131 + 1 (N. 1014). ----------------------------------
2131 + 2 (N. 1014). ----------- ȝȝ rw -------------------
2131 + 3 (N. 1014). ----------------- with braids of hair
2131 +4 (N. 1014). -------------
2131 + 5 (N. 1014). praise was given, rejoicing ------
2132 (N. 1014-1015). ȝḫ ------------- Geb -------------
2132 + 1 (N. Jéquier, XI 1015). -------------
2132 + 2 (N. 1015). --------- his two arms guarded before N.
2132 + 3 (N. 1015). ----------------------------------
2132 + 4 (N. 1015). --------------------------- śr
2132 + 5 (N. 1015). N. shines --------------------------
2133 (N. 1015-1016). ---------------------------------
2133 + 1 (N. 1016). -----------
2133 + 2 (N. 1016). N. purified --------------- ’in --
2133 + 3 (N. 1016). comes as his soul ’inw -------------
2133 + 4 (N. 1016) ------ N., he withdraws by it
2134 (N. 1016). the hand of N. took -----------------
2135 (N. 1016 + 1). -------------
2136 (N. 1016 + 1). ------- N. the northern way of the boat of the morning sun ---
2136 + 1 (N. 1016 + 1). Harachte commanded thee, N -------- pȝw.t ntr
2136 + 2 (N. 1016 + 1). Khepri --- gods, clothes laid aside
2136+ 3 (N. 1016 + 2). -------------
2136+4 (N. 1016 + 2) ------------- lake of the jackals
2136 + 5 (N. Jéquier, XI 1016 + 2). N. sat ------------[Dwȝ]
2136+ 6 (N. 1016 + 2). Dwȝ ------------------
Utterance 692.
2137 ----------------------------------------------
2138. ’i -------------- ’in --------------------
Utterance 693.
2139a. (N. Jéquier, XII 1021). To say: Awa[ke] -------- ḫnti n.k[m?] -----
2139b (N. 1021). -------------------------------------
p. 313
2140a (N. 1022). the bows bend their head to thee, go[ing] from thee between (?) -----
2140b (N. 1022) --------------------------------
2141a (N. 1023). the gods rejoiced; exult ----------
2141a + 1 (N. 1923). ------ [he?] sees -------
2141b (N. 1023-1024). ------------- [Geb], prince of the gods
2142a (N. 1024). he has taken the heritage; [he has] carried off
2142b (N. 1024). ---N ------------------------------
2143a. (N. 1025). Equip thyself with his white crown; eat bread
2143b (N. Jéquier, XII 1025). ------- [wi]th a presentation
Utterance 694.
2144a (N. Jéquier, XII 1028-1029). ------ says Isis; "I have found (him)," says Nephthys,
2144b (N. 1029). when they saw Osiris on his side on the shore [of Ndi.t]
2145a (N. 1029). -------- rise up -----------------------
2145b (N. 1029-1030). --------- my brother, I sought thee;
2145c (N. 1030). raise thyself up, spirit." Geb said:
2145d (N. 1030). "I have smitten -------------- the [Enn]ead
2146a. --------------------- for thy father Atum,
2146b. that he may cause thee to be (on) the ḥnti-ocean among the gods,
2146c. as the Great One who is before -----------------
2146d. -----------------------------------------
2147a. Those who are in Nun come to thee; mankind (the blessed dead (?)) circulate for thee;
2147b. thou art like Horus -----------------------------
2148a ---------------------- with him, in thy time.
2148b. Thine annual (offerings) are made with him, in his hour,
2148c. by order of ----------------
2149a. ------------------------------------------
2149b. The way of N. is open for N.; the way of N. is made (prepared?).
2150a. N ------------------------------------------
2150b ---------------------- chief of the two lands.
2150c. N. is Thot chief of heaven; N. is Anubis chief of the house.
p. 314
2151a. It was brought, open ---------------------------
2151b. ----------------------------- to N., before N.
2152 a. He is the bittern (śdȝ-bird), which comes from the marsh
2152b. -------------------------------------------
2153a. -------------------------------------------
2153b. who is in tnw of the four tnw, depart from N.
2154a. N -----------
2154b. N -----------------------------------------
2154c. pure is the tongue which is in the mouth of N.
2155a. Protect N ------------
2155a + 1 (N. Jéquier, XII 1038). ---- N -------
2155b. ---------------- that N. may not be upside down.
2156a. N. is the bull ----------
2156b. N. is the bull -------------------------------
2156c. three in heaven; two on earth.
Utterance 695.
2157a. To say: The diadem comes into being; inundated ------- ti
2157b. tm ---------------------------------------
2158a. Seat thyself on the throne of Rē‘, which Horus, removed to the south of the sky.
2158b. removed ---------------- fḫ (?) ---------------
2158c. ------------------ he removed the secret (places) of the Nine (Bows?).
2159a. N. is seated ----------------------------------
2159a + 1 (N. Jéquier, XII 1042). ------ n.f nb ------
2159b. ------------------------ N. upon the sky.
2159c. The two hands of N. are on Heliopolis.
2160a. ----------- rd.wi [N.] -------------------
2160b. ------------ ’ir.ś
2160b + 1 (N. 1044). the head of N. is above; the legs of N. [are below].
2161a. [N.] ---------------
2161b. --------- more long than wide;
2161b + 1 (N. 1045). behold N. św t[ȝ?] -----
2162a. ----- śšm -----------------------------------
2162b. like to her following of Set; like to her foll[owing] -----
2162c. ----- m ------- ’i -----------------------------
p. 315
Utterance 696.
2163a (N. Jéquier, XII 1047). O, strong one, jackal, Dḳḳ, bring these to [this] N.;
2163b. bring with these to N --------------------
2163c (N. 1048). messenger of Atum, O N., with linen of Tȝ(?)i.t
2164a. -----------------------------------
2164b (N. 1049). O! O! come; O! O! come; bring these to N.;
2165a. bring with (these) to N ----------------
2165b. lift him up -------
2165b + 1 (N. 1050). messenger of Atum, O N., with linen of Tȝ(?)i.t
2166a. -------------- the eye of Horus there
2166b (N. 10511). hurry against the fingers of Set
2166b + 1 (N. 1951). dȝ (or, wdȝ) ----------- ’in(f) m--ś--
21607a. (N. 1051-1052) ------ N. earth in peace
2167b (N. 1052). the two hands of N. ------------- to the heart
2168 (N. 1053). Raise thyself up N., tsi ----------------
2168 + 1 (N. 1054). N. raised himself up in this night --------
2168 + 2 (N. 1055). n these of N ---------------------
2168 + 3 (N. 1055 + 1 to 1055 + 2). ḥtm (?) --- Šśȝ --------belonging to the god
2168 + 4 (N. 1055 + 2). O N. ---------------------
2168 + 5 (N. 1055 + 3). 63 ------- ’im-n.n ------------
2168 + 6 (N. 1055 + 5) ------ he[aven] --------------
(Following 2168 + 6, there are in N. Jéquier, XII, eight additional columns, 1055 + 5 to 1055 + 12, the text of which is entirely destroyed).
Utterance 697.
2169a. To say: O N., the mouth of the earth opens for thee; Geb speaks to thee:
2169b. "Thou art great like a king; thou art mighty like Rē‘.
2170a. Thou purifiest thyself in the lake of the jackal; thou cleansest thyself in the lake of the Dȝt."
2170b. "Come in peace," say the Two Enneads to thee.
2170c. The eastern door of heaven is open for thee by ’Imn-kȝm.
2171a . Nut has given her arms to thee, N., she of the long hair, she of the hanging breasts;
p. 316
2171b. she lifts thee high to herself to heaven; she did not cast N. down to the earth.
2172a. She gives thee birth, N., like S'ȝh;
2172b. she makes thee remain as chief of the two ’itr.t-palaces."
21 72c. N. descends into the boat like Rē‘, on the shores, of the Winding Watercourse.
2173a. N. is transported by the indefatigables;
2173b. N. commands the imperishable stars;
2173c. N. is transported on the ḥnti-ocean;
2173d. N. takes the helm to the fields of ḫȝḫȝ.
2174a. Thy messengers go; thy runners hasten.
2174b. They say to Rē‘: "Behold, N. is come; behold, N. is come in peace."
2175a. Do not go by these water-courses of the west;
2175b. those who go there, they do not come back.
2175c. Go thou, N., by these water-courses of the east,
2175d. among the Followers of [Rē‘]
2175e. ------ him who lifts up the arm in the east.
2175f. ------------------------------------
Utterance 698.
(This cannot be the beginning of this utterance)
21 76a + 1 (N. 1300). N -------- N. pw -------------------
217 6a + 2 (N. 1309). mdś ntr.w m ------------------
2177a (N. 1309). -------------- śki
2177b (N. 1309-1310). flesh; protect thyself; give way from behind N.
Utterance 699.
2178a. -----------------------------------------
2178b. ------- Anubis, he lays hold of thine arm; Nut, she gives to thee thy heart.
2179a. Thou fleest cloudlike as a falcon; thou drawest thyself out of the water like a nwr-bird;
2179b. thou goest towards the west -----------------
2180a. ----------------------------------------
2180b. ------ [thou livest], thou livest; thou art young, thou art young;
2180c. to the side of thy father, to the side of Śȝḥ, to heaven.
2181a. Thou livest -----------------------------------
p. 317
2181b. -------------------------------------------
2181c. -----
Utterance 700.
2182a. To say: Father N.,
2182b. raise thyself up on thy right side; support thyself on thy left side.
2182c. Thy flesh has been collected for thee ------------
2182d. --------------------------------------
2183a. ---------------- with which thou art pure as a god.
2183b. The messengers of Rē‘ come forth for thee; the imperishable stars take thine arm.
2183c. [Thou] diest not ------------------------------
2184a. --------------------------------------
2184b. [like Anubis] who is in Tȝḫb.t.
2185a. Thy wȝg (offering) is of bread; wȝg is like the eye of Horus,
2185b. in (his) name of "Wȝg-(offering)."
2185c. Thy presentation -----------------------------
2185d. --------------------------------------
2186a. ----- thine enemies are destroyed; they perish;
2186b. they foam in opposing thee; throw them in the lake; throw them in the sea.
2187a. Men come to thee -----------------------------
2187b. --------------------------------------
2187c. -------
Utterance 701.
2188a. To say: The Great One is fallen in Ndi.t; Isis is loosed from her burden (tn).
2188b. Raise thyself up, thou who art in Ntrw; raise thyself up
2189a. --------------------------------------
2189b. ------------------------ the god is loosed.
2190a. Horus comes forth from Chemmis;
2190b. Buto arises for Horus; he purifies himself there.
2191a. Horus comes purified, that he may avenge [his father]
2191b. --------------------------------------
2192a. [I am thy sister], who loves thee, says Isis, says Nephthys.
2192b. They weep for thee; they awake for thee.
p. 318
2193a. O N., raise [thyself] up -------------------------
2193b. --------------------------------------
2 194a. ---------------------------------------
2194b. [(receive) thy thousand (loaves) of bread], [thy thousand (mugs) of beer], thy thousand cattle, thy thousand geese,
2194c. a roast, a double-rib piece from the slaughtering-bench of the god; the great bread and the rtḥ-bread from the broad-hall.
2195a. Provide thyself, N., with ------------------------
2195b. --------------------------------------
2196a. Thou hast thy wrr.t-crown; the wrr.t-crown is on thy head;
2196b. thou hast taken the wrr.t-crown before the Two Enneads
2196c. Thou art a spirit among [thy] brothers -------------
2197a. ---------------------------------------
2197b. ----------- spirits.
2198a. O N., stand up;
2198b. sit thou before thy heart like Anubis First of the Westerners.
2199a. Thou art come (again) to [thy] (right) state ---------
2199b. ---------------------------------------
2199c. -------
Utterance 702.
2200a. To say: N. is come to you,
2200b. ye great and powerful pair of goddesses, who are on the eastern side of heaven,
2200c. that you both may carry N. and set him on the eastern side of heaven.
Utterance 703.
2201a. To say: O. N., thy soul is with thee
2201b. ---------------- as Osiris.
2201c. O N., live, thou shalt not die.
2202a. Horus comes to thee; he separates thy bandages; he casts off thy bonds.
2202b. Horus has expelled thy rivals,
2202c. the earth-gods seize thee not.
2203a. O N., [thy] ka is mighty --------------------
2203b. Thy father is not among men; thy mother is not among mankind.
p. 319
2204a. Thy mother is the great ḥwr.t-uraeus, the white (crown), the royal head-dress, resident in el-Kâb,
2204b. she with variegated feather, she with the two hanging (and shaking) breasts.
2205. N. is not seized by ------------------------------
Utterance 704.
2206a. To say: N. [is a male], coming forth from Rē‘;
2206b. N. has come forth from between the thighs of the Ennead;
2206c. Šsm.t.t conceived him; Šsm.t.t gave him birth;
2206d. N. is a falcon coming forth from Rē‘;
2206e. [N. is the living ’i‘r.t-serpent], which came forth from the eye of Rē‘;
2206f. he flies, he hovers over the throne of Khepri, in the bow of his boat in the sky.


Utterance 690.
2092a. To say: Wake up, Osiris; let the weary god awake.
2092b. The god stands up; the god is powerful over his body.
2093a. Wake up, N.; let the weary god awake.
2093b. The god stands up; the god is powerful over his body.
2094a. Horus stands up; he clothes N. with linen--him who came forth from him.
2094b. N. is equipped as a god, standing in the pr.wr-palace, sitting with the Two Enneads.
2095a. "O N., stand up, come in peace," says Rē‘ to thee; "messenger of the great god,
2095b. thou goest to heaven; thou goest forth through the doors of the horizon;
2096a. Geb sends thee; thou art a soul like a [god, respected like a god];
2096b. [thou art powerful] over thy body, like a god,
2096c. like Ba, chief of the living,
2096d. like Śḫm, chief of spirits."
2097a. N. comes; he is equipped like a god; his bones are assembled like [Osiris];
2097b. [he comes behind his uraeus].
2097c. Thou hast come, O N., out of Heliopolis; thou art avenged; thy heart is placed in thy body;
2098a. Thy face is like that of a jackal; thy flesh is like that of Atum;
2098b. thy bȝ is in thy body; thy śḫm is behind thee; Isis is before thee; Nephthys is behind thee.
2099a. Thou journeyest through the regions of Horus; thou travelest through the regions of Set.
2099b. It is Shu and Tefnut who lead thee, when thou ascendest from Heliopolis.
2100a. O N., Horus has woven his tent over thy head;
2100b. Set has stretched out thy canopy;
2100c. be enclosed, O father, by the divine tent; thou art brought there in thy beloved places.
2101a. O N., Horus comes to thee provided with his souls,
p. 308
2101b. Ḥȝpi, Dwȝ-mw.t.f, ’Imś.ti, Ḳbḥ-śn.w.f.
2102 a. They bring to thee thy name of "Imperishable";
2102b. thou perishest not; thou diest not.
2103a. O N., thy sister Ḳbḥ.wt has purified [thee]
2103b. in Rd-wr chief of the lakes.
2103c. Thou appearest to them like a jackal, like Horus chief of the living,
2103d. like Geb chief of the Ennead, like Osiris chief of spirits.
2104. Thou commandest spirits; thou leadest the [imperishable stars].
2105a. The evil of Osiris--the evil of N.--the evil of the bull of the Two Enneads--
2105b. the god is loosed (from it), N. has power over his body.
2105c. N. is loosed (from it); N. has power over his body.
2106a. O N., Horus, is standing, he glorifies thee;
2106b. he conducts thee, when thou ascendest to heaven.
2107a. Thy mother Nut receives thee; she lays hold of thine arm,
2107b. that thou mayest not be in need, that thou mayest not moan (like a cedar),
2107c. (but) that thou mayest live like the coleoptera (lives) and endure in [Mendes].
2108a. O N., thou art adorned like a god; thy face is like (that of) a jackal, as Osiris,
2108b. that soul in Ndi.t, that mighty one in the great city.
2109. The sky trembles, the earth quakes before the god, before N.
2110a. N. [is not enveloped] by the earth;
2110b. ’Iḫ.t-wt.t, thou art not enveloped by the earth.
2110c. Thy fame is by day; thy fear is by night, as a god, lord of f ear.
2110d. Thou commandest the gods like the mighty one, chief of the mighty.
2111. [O] Osiris, the overflow comes, the inundation hastens, Geb groans.
2112a. I have pitied thee with pity; I have smitten him who acted with evil (intent) against thee;
2112b. that thou mayest live, that thou mayest raise thyself up because of thy strength.
2113. O N., [the inundation comes 1, [the overflow hastens], Geb [groans].
p. 309
2114a. Exult in the divine efflux which is in thee; let thy heart live;
214b. thy divine limbs are in good condition; loosen thy bindings.
2115a. Horus comes to thee, N.; he does for thee that which he did for his father Osiris,
2115b. that thou mayest live like unto the life of those in heaven, and [that thou mayest come into being] more (truly) than those who are on earth.
2116a. Raise thyself up because of thy strength; ascend thou to heaven.
2116b. The sky bears thee like Ś3ḥ; thou hast power over thy body;
2116c. thou defendest thyself against thine enemy.
2117. [O N.] [I have wept for thee], I have mourned for thee;
2118a. I shall not forget thee; my heart will not weary to give thee offerings every day,
2118b. at the (feast of the) month, at the (feast of the) half month, at the (feast of) covering the fire-pan, at the (feast of) Thot, at the wȝg-feast,
2118c. at the (feast of) slaughtering, (at) the (feast of) thy years, (at) (the feast of) thy birth, at the beginnings of thy months, during which thou livest as a god.
2119. O N., may thy body be clothed, that thou mayest come to me.


Utterance 685.
2063a. To say: The waters of life which are in the sky, the waters of life which are in the earth come.
2063b. The sky burns for thee, the earth trembles for thee, before the birth of the god.
2064a. The two mountains divide, a god comes into being, the god has power over his body.
p. 304
2064b. The two mountains divide, N. comes into being, N. has power over his body.
2065a. Behold N., his feet shall be kissed by the pure waters,
2065b. which come into being through Atum, which the phallus of Shu makes, which the vulva of Tefnut brings into being.
2066a. They have come to thee, they have brought to thee the pure waters which issue from their father;
2066b. they purify thee, they fumigate thee, N., with incense.
2067a. Thou liftest up the sky with thy hand; thou treadest (lit. layest) down the earth with thy foot.
2067b. A libation is poured out at the gate of N.; the face of every god is washed.
2068a. Thou washest thine arms, Osiris; thou washest thine arms N.
2068b. Thy rejuvenescence is a god. Your third is a wd-offering.
2068c. The perfume of an ’Iḫ.t-wt.t-serpent is on N.
2069a. A bnbn-bread is in the house of Seker; a leg of meat is in the house of Anubis.
2069b. N. is intact; the ’itr.t-palace is standing; the month (i.e. the moon) is born; the nome lives,
2070a. which measurements have traced. Thou tillest the barley; thou tillest the spelt,
2070b. with which N. will be presented for ever.
Utterance 686.
2071a. To say: Horus has ointment; Set has ointment.
2071b. Horus has taken his eye; he has taken it away from his enemies,
2071c. without Set being a gainer thereby.
2072a. Horus fills himself with ointment;
2072b. Horus is satisfied with his eye; Horus is furnished with his św.t-plant (?).
2072c. The eye of Horus is united with him; its perfume belongs to him.
2072d. Its anger falls upon his enemies.
2073a. N. has ointment; N. fills himself with it;
2073b. its perfume unites with him;
2073c. its anger falls upon his enemies.
p. 305
Utterance 687.
2074a. To say: O N., I have come; I have brought the eye of Horus which is in its heat;
2074b. its perfume belongs to thee, N.;
2075a. its perfume belongs to thee; the perfume of the eye of Horus belongs to thee, N.
2075b. Thou art a ba thereby; thou art a śḫm thereby; thou art honoured thereby.
2075c. Thou conquerest the wrr.t-crown thereby, among the gods.
2076a. Horus comes rejoicing at thy approach,
2076b. as he rejoices at the approach of his eye which is upon thee.
2076c. Behold N., who is before the gods, equipped as a god, his bones assembled, is like Osiris.
2077a. The gods do homage at the approach of N.,
2077b. as the gods do homage at the approach of the dawning of Rē‘ when he ascends in the horizon.
Utterance 688.
2078a. To say: These four grandsons stand up for N.,
2078b. ’Ims.ti, Ḥȝpi, Dwȝ-mu.t.f, Ḳbḥ-śn.w.f,
2078c. the offspring of Horus of Letopolis.
2079a. They bind a ladder for N.;
2079b. they make firm a ladder for N.
2079c. They cause N. to ascend to Khepri,
2079d. he who exists on the eastern side of the sky.
2080a. Its rungs are hewn by Šśȝ;
2080b. the ropes which are on it are made solid
2080c. by means of sinews of Gȝśw.ti, the bull of heaven;
2080d. the uprights at its sides are fastened,
2080e. like the skin of ’Imi-wt, son of Ḥsȝ.t;
2080f. the "supporter of the Great One" is set under it by Śpḥ-wr.t.
2081a. Cause ye the ka of N. to ascend to the god;
2081b. lead ye him to the two lions; cause him to ascend to Atum.
2082a. Atum has done that which he said he would do for N.,
2082b. (for) he binds the ladder for him, he makes the ladder firm for N.
2082c. (Thus) N. is removed from the horror of mankind;
2082d. the arms of N. are not a horror to the gods.
p. 306
2083a. N. has not eaten the d3ś-plant;
2083b. N. has not chewed bdȝ-goose on the first of the month;
2083c. he has not slept during the night, (though) he did not keep watch;
2083d. he ignores his body in one of these two seasons of Khepri.
2084a. The inhabitants of the Dȝ.t have counted their bodies;
2084b. they opened their ears, to the voice of N.,
2084c. when he descends among them.
2085a. "Heavy-is-his-sceptre" has said to them
2085b. that N. is one of them.
2085c. The might of N. is among them like "Great mighty one," who will lead to the Great West.
2086a. The dignity of N. is great in the house of the two lions,
2086b. for the wrong which appertains to N. is driven off by him who drives off evil (’Idr-isf.t)
2086c. from before Mḫnti-’irti in Letopolis.
Utterance 689.
2087a. To say: Geb has raised the eye of Horus, which is Kȝȝ (or, Kȝȝ.t),
2087b. which is over his great kas, which is first of his ordinary kas.
2088a. Thy head (O Eye of Horus) is given (to thee), that thou mayest see Horus who has caused to sit ------
2088b. so that the judgment may take place.
2089a. Isis comes; she has laid hold of her breasts for her son Horus, justified.
2089b. N. has found the eye of Horus.
2090a. (Thou), who has found that eye of Horus,
2090b. to which its head is given, for which a front is made, like the forehead of Rē‘, furious like a crocodile,
2090c. thou hast followed the eye of Horus to heaven, to the śḥd.w-stars of the sky,
2090d. go thou, as one who shall row Horus, with his eye.
2091a. O Shu, thou who bearest up Nut,
2091b. thou hast borne up the eye of Horus to heaven, to the śḥd.w-stars of the sky,
2091c. because Horus sits upon his firm (or, copper; or, brilliant) throne.
2091d. Go thou, as one who shall row Horus, with his eye.


Utterance 684.
2051a. To say: N. ascended at thy ascension, Osiris;
2051b. N. has spoken (with) his ka in heaven.
2051c. The bones of N. are firm (or, copper), and the limbs of N.
2051d. are like the stars, the imperishable stars.
2052a. Given that N. be encompassed, then a great one falls into the hands of N.
2052b. The mother of N. is Nut;
2053a. the father of N. is Shu; the mother of N. is Tefnut.
2053b. They take N. to heaven, to heaven-on the smoke of incense.
2054. N. is purified; N. lives; N. makes his seat like Osiris;
2055a. N. sits at thy side (lit. shoulder), Osiris; N. spits on thy hair, Osiris;
2055b. he will not let him become diseased; N. will not permit him to be bald,
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2055c. at the mouth of N. daily, at the beginnings (of the feast) of the half months, at the beginnings (of the feast) of the months.
2056a. N. sits at thy side (lit. shoulder), Horus; N. spits on thy hair, Horus;
2056b. he will not let it become diseased; N. will not permit himself to be bald,
2056c. at the mouth of N. daily, at the beginnings (of the feast) of the half months, at the beginnings (or the feast) of the months.
2057. N. is one of these four beings, sons of Atum, sons of Nut,
2058a. who do not rot; N. does not rot;
2058b. who do not decay; N. does not decay;
2058c. who do not fall upon earth from heaven;
2058d. N. does not fall upon the earth from heaven.
2059a. N. was sought; N. is found with them;
2059b. N. is one of them, praised by the bull of heaven.
2060. N. makes his ka arise; N. returns (?); N. strides--
2061a. the good companion makes his ka arise, returns (?), strides.
2061b. N. rests at home, on the under (side) of the body of the sky, like a nfr.t-star,
2061c. at the meanderings of the Winding Watercourse.
2062a. When N. ascends to heaven, give him this formula: "Rē‘ is good each day."
2062b. N. put himself on thy way, Horus of Šsm.t, on which thou leadest the gods
2062c. to the beautiful ways of heaven and of the Marsh of Offerings.


Utterance 677.
2018a. To say: A Great One is fallen on his side; he is up like a god;
2018b. his śḫm-sceptre is with him; his white crown is upon him.
2019a. N. is fallen on his side; N. is up like a god;
2019b. his śḫm-sceptre is with him; his white crown is upon him, like the white crown of Rē‘,
2019c. when he ascends in the horizon, and when he is greeted by Horus in the horizon.
2020a. O N., raise thyself up;
2020b. receive thy dignity, which the Two Enneads made for thee (e.g. "conferred upon thee").
2021a. Thou art on the throne of Osiris, in the place of the First of the Westerners.
2021b. Thou hast taken his śḫm-sceptre; thou hast carried off his great white crown.
2022a. O N., how beautiful is this, how great is this which thy father, Osiris, has, done for thee!
2022b. He gave thee his throne,
2023a. that thou mayest rule those of secret places, that thou mayest lead their venerable ones,
2023b. and that all the glorified ones may follow thee in this their name of "Secret places."
2024a. O N., thou art happy; thou art proud;
2024b. thou art an Atum; thou wilt not depart from his destiny.
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2025a. Rē‘ calls thee, in thy name of "Him whom all the glorified ones fear."
2025b. Thy dread is in the hearts of the gods, like the dread of Rē‘ of the horizon.
2026a. O N., who keeps secret his form, like Anubis on his belly,
2026b. receive thy face of a jackal; raise thyself up; stand up.
2027a. Sit down to thy thousand (loaves) of bread, thy thousand (mugs) of beer, thy thousand of oxen, thy thousand of geese,
2027b. thy thousand of every good thing whereon a god lives.
2028a. O N., pure one, Rē‘ finds thee standing with thy mother Nut;
2028b. she leads thee on the ways of the horizon,
2028c. where thou makest thine abode. How beautiful it is (to be) with thy ka, for ever and ever.
Utterance 678.
2029a. To say: ’Iḥmti, Śdmti,
2029b. do not hearken to N.; do not listen to N.;
2029c. do not demand the magic of N.;
2029d. do not ask for the magic of N. from N.
2030a. Thou hast thy magic; N. has his magic.
2030b. May N. not break thy pen; may he not crack thy palette!
2030c. May N. have (his) offering!
Utterance 679.
2031a. To say: Thy water belongs to thee; thine efflux belongs, to thee; thine inundation belongs to thee,
2031b. issuing from Osiris.
2032a. Thou makest them ḫśd like Horus; thou openest them like Wepwawet,
2032b. for thou art the Wr, the Eldest Son.
Utterance 680.
2033. To say: Osiris N., take to thee the eye of Horus; it is thine.
Utterance 681.
2034a. To say: Great heaven, give thy hand to N.;
2034b. great Nut, give thy hand to N.;
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2034c. it is N. thy divine falcon.
2035a. N. is come; he ascends to heaven; N. opens ḳbḥ.w;
2035b. N. greets his father, Rē‘.
2036a. He crowned him as a Horus, in which (form) N. comes;
2036b. he gives to N. two real crowns;
2036c. (and) he establishes for N. his two divine eyes.
2037a. N. ascends to him, great, as Horus of the sky, at the zenith of heaven;
2037b. he who smites the crowns of the North, who gives commands to the Wtn.w.
2038a. N. is followed by the ‘fti.w.
2038b. Those in heaven and on earth come to him with salutations,
2038c. as well as jackals, as (lit. (in) place of) Setite spirits,
2038d. superiors and inferiors.
2039. He is anointed with perfume, clothed with pȝ-t, living on offerings.
2040a. N. commands; N. confers distinctions;
2040b. N. awards places;
2040c. N. makes offerings; N. conducts the presentations.
2041. It is N.; N., is the one of heaven; he exercises power before Nut.
Utterance 682.
2042a. To say: Greetings to thee from Seker, N.
2042b. Thy face is washed by Dwȝ-wr.
2042c. N. flies as a cloud (or, high) like a divine falcon;
2042d. N. is cool like the heron; N. flies low (?) like a śmn-goose.
2043a. The wings of N. are like (those of) a divine falcon;
2043b. the tips of the wings of N. are like (those of) a divine falcon.
2043c. The bones of N. are fastened together; N. is purified.
2044a. The fillet of N. is at his back; the bodice of N. is upon him;
2044b. his girdle is of šnp.
2045a. N. descends with Rē‘ into his great boat,
2045b. in which he transports him to the horizon to judge the gods with him.
2046a. Horus voyages in it with him to the horizon;
2046b. N. judges the gods with him in the horizon,
2046c. for N. is one of them.
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Utterance 683.
2047a. To say: Behold, this, is what they said to N., what the gods said to N.
2047b. The word of the gods is fallen upon N.:
2047c. "It is Horus, who comes forth from the Nile; it is the bull, which comes forth from the fortress;
2047d. it is the d.t-serpent which comes forth from Rē‘; it is the ’i‘r.t-serpent which comes forth from Set.
2048a. Everything which will happen to N. happens likewise to Mdd.t-’it,
2048b. daughter of Rē‘, who is on his two legs;
2048c. everything which happens to N. happens likewise to Mdȝ,
2048d. daughter of Rē‘, who is on his two legs,
2049. for N. is Wdȝ, son of Wdȝ, who comes forth from Wdȝ-t.
2050a. N. is intact; N. is intact; (as true as) the eye of Horus is intact in Heliopolis;
2050b. N. lives; N. lives; (as true as) the eye of Horus lives in Heliopolis."